Финляндия, Тампере
Район Хиденранта: теория
Это одна из наших первых работ в сфере городского планирования. Очень скоро подъедет перевод на русский язык.
Introduction.
We have not aspire to create a completely accurate model recreating the whole district.
Our goal is to create standards and optimize the methodology of the city development,
which can greatly simplify the control over project implementation and use significantly
less resources.
We are convinced that the most reliable solution is the simplest one. Instead of calculating the chances of the project to succeed, one should aim to the need for calculations to be reduced to minimum. Our previous variegated experience greatly assists us in the implementation of our approach: right from the opening of the first shops in the city to the development of new niches in the local market.

During the years of various experiments we came to several conclusions:
1. The product is more important than the packaging.
2. The simpler the better it is.
3. If everyone is doing one thing, you must do the opposite.
4. The solution should be cheaper than the problem.
5. Place determines the strategy.
6. The main and only task is to serve the customer.

However, nobody prohibits us to use these rules to create an entire city. Our clients – any resident, any visitor, any dog and any fish in Tampere.
If you pay attention to the latest urban development projects, the world tends to create
something futuristic and «mind-blowing». There is great temptation to label these ideas as "narcissism" and it's to hard disagree.

If our client wants to get his bread and his water, we should not offer «croutons with
cacious seeds» because we prefer it that way. What we personally like – is less than
nothing.
Design basics.
The success probability of any town-planning project will depend on the extent to which will be simplified and/or improved the environment for people.
All our work should serve for creation of the most comfortable conditions for the three main groups that will shape the history and economy of the city.

1. Residents of the city and life in the city.
This is the most general group we will consider and we should split it into several aspects. First, the satisfaction of basic needs: food, sleep, safety, communication, culture, work and leisure. Secondly, the environment. If the first aspect is a life necessity, than the second one – it is the method of public good "delivery".
In other words, each resident should have ability not only easily and peacefully satisfy his or her needs, but the process of acquiring the benefit should be fun. It can be achieved through the standardization of the appearance of the urban environment and logistics and infrastructure base optimization. Of course, in this group, we should also consider the flora and fauna – the Finns are in love with its history, nature and animals.

2. Business community.
We consider the business in the broadest sense: from market stalls to large transnational corporations. You cannot focus only on large or only medium business: every enterprise serves its customer. These businesses give jobs, simplify and improve people' lives and generate taxes for the city.

3. Science, education and culture.
The more opportunities for development, the healthier will be the person not only physically and mentally but also spiritually. Science, education and culture is one of the foundations that brings society up to a new level. So, leaving aside this very important group: both people and the industry as a whole – would be at least unreasonable.
Again, this will penetrate into the entire environment of the city: from the architecture and internal logic of the city development. All of these groups – is the most important
component of the city. Onwards we will continue to review each offer from the perspective of these three groups. Only the synergy of all the above categories helps to achieve the desired result.

In order to avoid the maze of philosophical debates, we turn to the geography of the area. Each area should be self-sufficient. In other words: it should have the capability to handle each of the above groups. Let's start with the General zoning and reference points that will allow us to form the shape and mechanics of the city.
The convenience and comfort. Transport, logistics and infrastructure.
The current problem of congestion poses a serious threat to plans for growth and
development of the district. As we can see, people have no alternative way to get to
Hiedanranta, due to which there is permanent road congestion on the two main arteries of the city.

Input data.
In this area will come not only inhabitants of nearby houses, but people from the heart of Tampere. In addition to regional differences, we also have differences in the way of passages and crossings: bicycle, car, train, tram, trolley, ferry, cable car, etc. In addition, we have completely different goals when traveling: to work, from work, on vacation, shopping, maneuvers.

Solution.

In view of the above, it's at least pointless to develop an extensive network of roads. There is no country in the world the traffic congestion problem was by expanding roadway or branching of major arteries. Such decisions are temporary, as in a very short period of time these roads become not sufficient again. That's why we focus on the usability of the city. Let's start from the essentials.
District should be self-sufficient.
The self-sufficiency of the city or district is determined by its ability to satisfy absolutely
different categories of needs: both from the point of view of residents and from the point of view of nature, and from the point of view of corporations. In our case, we assumed as a basis three main groups:

1. Residents of the city and life in the city.
2. Business community.
3. Science, education and culture.

The internal infrastructure primarily determines self-sufficiency of the area, which, in turn, will depend on the city planning and the existing real estate.
In fact, the basic vital needs of person meets business. Therefore, let's begin the
standardization of the city functioning with business and real estate.

The buildings in general.
To achieve self-sufficiency in the area, you should start with zoning. On average, the areas are divided into circles, with a radius of 500 to 1000 m. Each of this area should have the self-sufficiency potential.
One of the tempting ideas may be a decision to divide the city by areas: one area is for
trading, another is for offices and the third is for housing, etc. In our view, this is a deadend way. Complete opposite way is required. In one building can and should co-exist completely different categories of businesses and people. Without division into classes or according to their profitability and so on. Restrictions should be based only on the business specifics and the required resources.

The first floors of buildings.
One of the rules of retail (food, street, DIY, shop, etc.) place defines the whole strategy.
With mistake at site selection, we get a strategic miscalculation that cannot be made up for tactics.
Typically, the premises on the first floor are better suited for retail and catering due to the close proximity to pedestrian flows.
This item should be taken into account in the overall city development strategy. Thus, it is necessary to design the structure of the city and buildings in a way to provide opportunities for various categories of businesses to grow and develop.

The second floors.
On the second floors feel quite comfortable not only back offices, but also hotels, hostels, co-workings, etc, For this category the close presence of pedestrian traffic is not critical so much, but further more important is the proximity to the infrastructure, allowing to serve themselves and their customers.
The objective will be achieved through the correct approach to the general urban
development policy of the city, and the carrying out of the previous recommendations.

Third floors and above.
From this floor and above – minimum restrictions. Here feel very comfortable both the
representatives of the previous groups, and ordinary private housing.
Restrictions in this segment are not as binding as the competition and the market itself will determine the rules, which will be useless to contradict with.
For example, an individual who wants to open a grocery store on the 3rd floor or building materials outlet will face his speedy bankruptcy, as this format requires close proximity to the client, in other words,- on the first floor. Strategic miscalculations can't be made up for tactics.

About the benefits.
Using this approach, we save a huge amount of resources in the planning of the entire
district. Instead of calculating probabilities, it is best to choose a strategy in which this
necessity tends to zero.
Our approach is based on proven approaches in the business development, from small to large enterprises. The decision-making system for opening of an institution has long been invented and tested by the major market players (McDonald's, Walmart, Auchan, Metro, IKEA, WeWork, KPMG and etc.). Now the points.

1. For residents of the city and life in the city. First of all, the wealthier district is, the less
time people will waste on transportation, less their personal time will be wasted in general and they will have more opportunities for their own leisure time.
In the present state of affairs, people have to deal with rather long everyday travelling,
stucking in traffic jams, being nervous, etc. According to our calculations, only moving from the shop to home may take up to 40 minutes. Let's assume these trips happen once a week. Thus, over the year people lose in traffic jams more than 30 hours. In fact, today most of the population spend 30 hours on the destruction of the nervous system, transport infrastructure also doesn't get benefit from it, and the overall picture for the city also does not encourage optimism.
This decision will allow people, if not to forget about personal transport, however, greatly reduce the need of using it, because the district is adjusted for them.

2. For business. Everything is rather obvious here. Due to the first point, the business gets happier and more relaxed clients. Second, the business gets happier and more successful employees. Third, the system of business development gets radically simplified. For example, selection of only one of the premises for any kind of business includes approximately 120 criteria, 28 photos, 1 potential site, more than 80 variants of objects. It takes more than 120 man-hours.
From the unobvious. The more variegated people we have, the more ideas we can
generate. Such system would allow various industries coexist and communicate with each other. Instead of wasting time and energy on the cohesion of the city, the city itself will decide what it really needs.

3. For science, education and culture. The first two groups provide an excellent
environment for this category. Due to the lack of segmentation of the area into separate pieces, we create a unified rich organism, which is wishing (or not) share their ideas and thoughts with each other.
No science, no education and no art can develop in vacuum, without presence of the
audience and its' opinions.
What we actually create.
Transport.
Hiedanranta is a relatively small area. It allows to provide full service to the urban
population not only in its' own area but also beyond it.
Taking in account the size, no excessive need to load the area with roads, Railways, etc.
Our approach is somewhat different: achieving maximum ease of use with minimum
resources.
Because of this, we propose to create a HUB that will connect the city with the outside
world. Each of the lines we discuss below. Let's start with the basics.
As you noticed, we do not let public transport to all corners of the district. The main goal is to find the optimal pick up and drop off zones to get to the extreme point of the map in less than 12 minutes.
In addition, all roads and roots should not radically modify the appearance of the city. Plus, a wide and extensive network of roads and public transport create more problems than benefits. Therefore, it is necessary to start from the convenience of the city itself.

Railway.
We consider only 2 options of implementation of the project of Railways in the city. Each of them has its pros and its cons.
In the first embodiment, ensures maximum ease of movement of rolling stock, however, this solution create large costs for the reconstruction of roads.
The second design uses existing structure, however, the use of these paths is complicated due to the lack of drivethrough, and the relatively small turning radius of railway lines will significantly slow down the speed of trains, forcing to perform the maneuver.
In fact, in both cases the train shouldn't have the status of the final stop but only travel
destination. The less time you need transport for picking up and dropping off passengers, the higher is the quality of life of residents and the city. Under no circumstances transport should interfere with people's lives.

Road.
Due to the presence of railway lines, there is a need to optimize transport interchanges.
Some roads are overloaded because of the lack of the ability for drivers to safely and
quickly change lanes and direction of movement when entering and exiting the city. All is needed - to give people this opportunity.
There is absolutely no need to make u-turns on such a loaded track, relying on the traffic light. This interchange needs to pass on the second level, allowing exit to the main road without creating crowding at traffic lights. As a plus, the denouement takes place through a basic hub that makes life easier, and also creates new entrances and exits from the city, which will ease the situation in the roads.

Bus routes.
Bus routes also do not spread into the entire city territory. However, covered the basic
points that, in our opinion, are of the greatest importance, including to school (this will be discussed below).
One can notice that it is suggested to add two additional solutions that were offered above in the road section. This will reduce the load of the roads, however, requires significant investments.

Cableway.
Cableway can be a great alternative according to our assumptions. Firstly, it is possible to cover really large distances, secondly, has a relatively low cost of construction, and third, allows to connect part of the districts in the most secure and fast way. Also, the route connects people from Haapalinna to school area.
Pedestrian areas and bike paths.
Every resident should have an opportunity to explore the city in its various manifestations, from a walk in the park to bike ride. The implementation of this idea
will help only a competent design code, which will standardize the architecture and
appearance of the city, and harmonize the urban environment.
The spirit and lifestyle.
The most difficult task is to pass the city to its' residents. The city should live by the laws of the inhabitants, adapted to their needs. For this, you can refer to the experience of Turkey, where all the streets can be filled with the merchants' stalls. You can look at the streets in the USA, where the wagons with bagels and trucks with hot dogs became almost the most recognizable and stereotypical elements.
And you can look at the experience of Czech Republic and Switzerland. In contrast to the above-mentioned countries, cities live there in their different, logic, which was built by the inhabitants of these cities. In a small village in Switzerland, the local population in range of 20 to 30 thousand people, you can see how expensive brand store with an average check of 800 euros coexists with a little store of home-made bonbons, where the average check barely exceeds 40 euros. And there can be lots of these small shops and each of them will be unique.
Tampere residents should be able to create and use their city in the context of their
established traditions. That is why in this particular case, we focus not so much on public transport itself, but on the self-sufficiency of areas where traveling is not difficult, but on the contrary – gives enormous pleasure. We offer to provide for the possibility of natural fairs, festive processions and leisure activities throughout 300 – 400 meters from the waterfront area in advance.
The best solution is the use of the landscape. No need to pave the sidewalks and roads
the next year or two, as people will find a convenient route for themselves, will offer the
city a lot of interesting and useful ideas and people's actions will tell about their
preferences.
Also, this solution does not break the overall geometry of the city and the waterfront
retains its concise style, keeping the spirit of a small village.
In addition, this plan allows you to maximize the use of space, because in addition to
trade, office and residential zones are automatically created as well as the pedestrian
zones and bike paths.
The design code.
The most time consuming task is to rebuild the city with regard to the common ideas,
without turning a small town in the pathetic simulation of a big city. Of course, to design every house, every corner and every track – is counterproductive. Instead, we propose to standardize all the visual, technical and functional parts.

Let's have a look at existing examples.
As you can see, the whole city looks like a single unit. Besides the obvious color and
boundary standards, you should pay attention to the overall picture: the city is not out of the General logic of the landscape.
Examples of good inherently, but not in its execution. Our work requires the combination of a classic look (the above examples) and modern trends.
Full control over the entire architecture will be extremely difficult, therefore, it is necessary to develop a single design code.
Standardization of the architecture.
Simple shape, recognizable materials, strict colour matrix, restriction on the departure of the balconies, false beams, yards, marquises, etc. – this is the whole design of the code.
We need to bring common standards. The simpler are the rules and requirements, the
lower the probability of mistake.
Finland has incredible construction technologies, which affect its adaptability and, most importantly, simplicity. There is no need to emulate anything. All you need is a slight control on compliance with standards.
The city should firstly amaze not with its sophisticated architecture but with the high
functionality and convenience. It is therefore necessary to use a base color and materials that occur in nature: wood, stone, glass, vegetation, etc.
Any color which can't be seen in nature, would only spoil the appearance of the town.
Standardization of advertising structures.
There is no easier way to ruin the appearance of the building than an adsign.
Unfortunately, in this area there are a lot of errors, not only in Hiedanranta, but throughout the world.
The experience of Moscow authorities is a good example for the standardization of the
appearance of facades. It became possible to completely change the appearance of the city using the most essential recommendations, which began to look a hundred times better than before the reconstruction. In the concept developing took part Art Lebedev Studio (www.artlebedev.ru). On the left side – 'before'; on the right side – 'after'.
Pictures are taken from Lebedev's LJ-account; authorship is preserved also after him:
www.tema.livejournal.com

In the end, we get a quick guide, but not complete:
1. In the presence of a window frames, the sign is only within its frames.
2. A ban on the use of light boxes.
3. Ban the installation of any advertising signs, which disrupts the overall geometry, and
appearance of the building.
4. A ban on installation of engineering equipment on the facades (air conditioning, etc.)
5. A promotional sign is made of channel letters: as with the substrate.
6. Any pointers are subdued to severe restrictions on the mounting height, overall size
and method of fastening.
7. Sewage pipes, tides, etc. are painted in the color of the facade.
8. The ban on the mixing of styles (special case: installation of plastic windows in the
balcony area, in a different color from the front, or create new geometry in comparison
with the original version)
Of course, the list is not full. In this case, given the existing problems, even the use
existing list greatly improve the appearance of the city.
Standardization of the urban environment.
The city may not become another resident until you turn to face him. That's why every
street and bike path requires its own standards, which must perform only one function: to serve the city-dwellers.
We offer to go through the main city problems.

The lack of pedestrian zones.
The walking zone is not just a stretch of road. It's not even paved walkway with fences and powerful lighting. People should get genuine pleasure from walking, and at least shouldn't notice it.
First of all, every street, and each district should be self-sufficient.
Besides paying attention to the obvious lack of bike lanes, benches, trash cans, global and detailed lighting, one should take into account how the people themselves would want to use these streets. As a standard we suggest using the enhanced 1.5 times pedestrian zones in the main arteries of the city and in the new built-up areas. In some cases (within a radius of 200 m from hub) is allowed to use twice the width.
All of that provides not only more comfortable conditions for all the traffic participants, but also creates potential for any free activities during the holidays: from fairs to national festivals.
Lighting must be of 2 types: General lighting and decorative. The first is for easy and safe movement, and the second is to emphasize the elegance of architecture or vegetation in the city.
Here are some excellent solutions:
As you can see, the same problems can be solved by completely different methods. Most importantly, do not be afraid to help people and to create tools simplifying motion and navigation.
Reconstruction and reorganization.
Existing buildings.
That will be the most simple part. First of all, we should look at page 7, where we talk
about rules, that determine the basic logic. However, we should also incorporated one fact, that existing buildings, such as former pump mill for example, are very specific. That's why we suggest to use that buildings also as co-working centers, hostels, showrooms, exhibition centers and so on.
All floors above third are recommended to use as technical areas: for data-center, data
processing center, servers, communications and etc.
About School.
Here is our suggestion about school location (green circle) and its implementation.
The area is far enough from noisy part of city and its roads, and close enough to walking area, parks and coastline.
The design should be as close to the whole city's design-code as it possible. Simple
shape, recognizable materials, strict color matrix and etc.
Summary.
We are sure that the most important part is to give whole city to its citizens. And that will be
the greatest challenge to every person who will be involved in this project.
As we suggested, the first goal is to make every district self-sufficient. Next goal, is
standardization of design-code, which will allow to improve logistics, infrastructure and
outward appearance. And only after all, we can think about transport and so on.
We hope, that our suggestions will be useful for your city and people of Hiedanranta.
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